Serum uric acid measurements are useful in the diagnosis and treatment of numerous renal and metabolic disorders, including renal failure, gout, leukemia, psoriasis, starvation or other wasting conditions, and in patients receiving cytotoxic drugs. High concentrations of uric acid are caused by the metabolic breakdown of purines which are found in certain foods such as high protein foods including organ meats, mackerel, herring and fructose and table sugar. High consumption of alcohol can also increase uric acid levels. Higher levels of uric acid can cause gout. People with gout are also at a higher risk of developing kidney stones and the uric acid levels is a method of monitoring these patients for formation of them. In addition, high cell turnover during chemotherapy or radiation treatment can cause high levels of uric acid.